Maslow’s pyramid was published by Abraham Maslow in 1943. It is a hierarchical ordering of needs. According to this theory, humans only seek to satisfy the needs that are placed higher in the hierarchy after the lower-levels are satisfied.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is as follows.
1. Physiological needs
Keeping these physiological needs associated with the homeostasis of the organism and the physical balance. These are needs for sleep, food, drink and excrete feces. Maslow also classifies sex, sports and comfort in this category.
2. Needs for safety and security
These needs are about the individual’s search for security in an organised small or large group. This could be near family or business. Typical examples are: housing, work and relationships.
3. Need for belonging
The third level is interpersonal and involves feelings of belongingness and love. Humans have a need to love and be loved by others. Some people are prone to loneliness, anxiety and depression in the absence of this belonging element.
4. Need for esteem
Humans have a need to feel respected. Esteem represents the desire to be valued by others. For this reason people often engage in a profession or hobby to be accepted by others. These activities contribute to a sense of value.
5. Need for self-actualization
This level is about reaching a person’s full potential and accomplishing everything that one can. This desire can be expressed socially, athletically or or in a creative way. Maslow believed that to understand this level of need, the person must achieve and master previous needs.
The physiological need is also described by Maslow as the lower basic need. The four other needs are described as higher basic needs. According to Maslow, a lack of satisfaction in these basic needs blocks human possibilities. A person can only realise itself, by growing, when he has at least satisfied the basic needs. In later research Maslow concluded that every human is wedged between maintaining the basic needs and the urge for new experience.